9 December 2023 —
Daily temperature maps for ERA5 are being generated and will be posted for use with the
time series chart when available.
This page provides time series and map visualizations of daily mean
surface air temperature (2-meter height) estimates from the
ECMWF Reanalysis version 5 (ERA5) for the period January 1940 to
present (see ERA5 attribution below). ERA5 is a state-of-the-art
numerical climate/weather modeling framework that ingests surface, radiosonde, and satellite
observations to estimate the state of the atmosphere through time. The visualizations
on this page enable users to explore weather-driven temperature changes within specific
years, while also having several decades of daily data for broader climate context.
Please Note: This content is intended
for general analysis only. Any apparent record high or low daily temperatures estimated
by ERA5 should be considered with caution and validated against weather station observations
and other climate data products. Regarding high global mean temperatures in July 2023,
Copernicus C3S and the World Meteorological Organization issued this
statement. The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)
made a similar assessment.
Global mean annual temperature comparisons between ERA5 and other datasets can be found
Additional information about ERA5, including strengths and limitations, is available
from the NCAR Climate Data Guide. To learn more about reanalysis refer to
Advancing Reanalysis. Users are
also encouraged to check out NOAA NCEI's
Climate at a Glance for monthly, seasonal, and annual surface
temperature anomaly estimates 1850 to present.
The time series chart displays area-weighted mean temperature estimates for the
World (90°S–90°N, 0–360°E)
Northern Hemisphere (0–90°N, 0–360°E)
Southern Hemisphere (0–90°S, 0–360°E)
Arctic (66.5–90°N, 0–360°E)
Antarctic (66.5–90°S, 0–360°E)
Tropics (23.5°S–23.5°N, 0–360°E)
The ERA5 output files downloaded from Copernicus C3S have a horizontal grid resolution
of 0.25° x 0.25° (about 31km x 31km at 45°N). Each daily temperature on
the chart represents an average across all model gridcells within the defined
latitude/longitude bounds for the selected domain. The means are area-weighted to
account for the convergence of longitude lines at the poles.
Individual time series can be hidden or displayed by clicking on a specific the year
below the chart. Hide All and Show All buttons are found at the chart
lower right. Temperature anomalies in the chart tooltip (appears when the cursor is
hovered over a data point) are in reference to 1979–2000 climatology for each
specific day of the year. For reference, the times series for the 1979–2000
climatology is plotted on the chart in addition to the more commonly used 30-year
1981–2010 and 1991–2020 climate normals.
The daily mean temperature map below the chart can be updated by
clicking a point on one of the time series. The measurement displayed on the map
variable can be switched between temperature and temperature anomaly by clicking the
toggle botton at the map top-left.
The temperature estimates on this page are calculated from eight hourly timeslices
(00, 03, 06, 09, 12, 15, 18, 2100 UTC) for each day in the ERA5 dataset. The chart
and maps update daily by about 1800 UTC with a lag time of 6–8 days from the current
- NCAR Command Language is used
for data processing and map generation. The interactive time series chart is made with
Data Source: Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) (2023): ERA5
hourly data on single levels from 1940 to present. Copernicus Climate Change Service
(C3S) Climate Data Store (CDS). 10.24381/cds.adbb2d47 (Accessed daily 2023).
Data Citation: Hersbach, H., Bell, B., Berrisford, P., Biavati, G., Horányi, A.,
Muñoz Sabater, J., Nicolas, J., Peubey, C., Radu, R., Rozum, I., Schepers, D.,
Simmons, A., Soci, C., Dee, D., Thépaut, J-N. (2018): ERA5 hourly data on single levels
from 1940 to present. Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) Climate Data Store (CDS).
(Accessed daily 2023).
Disclaimer: Contains modified Copernicus Climate Change Service information 2023.
Neither the European Commission nor ECMWF is responsible for any use that may be made
of the Copernicus information or data it contains.
Last updated 9 December 2023